Monday, October 26, 2020

What is Domain Name System? | What Is DNS Server | How It Works

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Pravin Kr. Chandra
A mechanical engineer by profession and a gadget freak by passion.

What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Name System. Just like you have a phonebook in your smartphone where all kind of contact you saved, DNS is the Phonebook of the Intenet.


For example, suppose you have to contact a person and their contact is saved in your smartphone’s phonebook. You opened your phonebook searched their name and dialed.

Similarly in case of DNS. People get information online through domain names like the “’,, etc. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. Everything that connected to the internet has a unique IP address. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources. Because it is very difficult to remember the IP addresses such as (in IPv4) and in case of IPv6 it looks like 1200:0000:AB00:1234:0000:2552:7777:1313.

Can You remember it?, I think no one can.

So, You can understand it as simple as a tree. Consider the Domain Name System (DNS) as a tree. Every element in a tree including leaf or branch has some record or information associated with the domain name. If you want to go pick any leaf or fruit lets to say, you must have to know which fruit is where situated. You have to remember the route for the fruit. Hence,

The tree further subdivides into subbranches, starting at the root zone. DNS zones may have one domain or many domains and subdomains depending on the administrative authority delegated to managers. The client side of DNS, the DNS resolver, is responsible for initiating and sequencing queries that lead to a full resolution of the resources sought. These queries are either recursive or nonrecursive.

How does DNS work?

Look, as I say DNS translates a domain name into IP addresses but who does it in actual? It is the responsibility of resolver. When you type the Hostname ( address on your web browser, in the background all the process is done by the resolver to find the IP of the Hostname. Because computer or smartphones deal with numbers, so it is very important to convert it into computer friendly addresses. This is called mapping the hostname. There are different hardware component a DNS query must pass between. For the web browser, the DNS lookup occurs “ behind the scenes” and requires no interaction from the user’s computer apart from the initial request. These queries are either recursive or nonrecursive.

What Is DNS Server?

DNS servers are simply the computer servers where all the data of public IP addresses are stored and associated with their hostname. When you type your hostname in your web browser, the request goes to the resolver and resolver request to the DNS servers to find the IP address of the Hostname. DNS Servers store the data of different domain names, network names, Internet hosts, DNS records, etc. During the resolution of the query that is requested by the End-user, the record is searched in these servers and if the record found, it is returned to the end user. DNS server is developed on typical hardware but runs specialized DNS software.

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